Modern electric vehicles require three basic characteristics in battery module technology: high power and energy density with low weight, high-density integration into the vehicle with variable installation conditions, as well as high system safety and long service life. In order to meet these requirements, a high flexibility in the battery design and in the battery module production is required, which in particular ensures high long-term stability. The manufacturers of battery packs must therefore be able to adapt these in geometry and shape for different vehicle models and to align their production processes accordingly.
The battery system of an electrified vehicle is constructed from individual battery modules within which the individual battery cells are electrically connected, as well as from cooling and battery management systems with corresponding sensors and electronics. The modularity of the structure makes it possible to adapt very flexibly to the production scenarios of automobile manufacturers and the different requirements regarding battery capacity / current / voltage, using standardized cell types, which can be produced in large numbers, also from different vehicle types such as HEV, PHEV and EV Automotive manufacturers. In a pack, 5000 and more cells are connected to one another or to corresponding current bus bars, so-called Busbars. In addition to cell connections for the interconnection of cells, sensor lines are required, via which a state determination of the cell and the so-called cell balancing is made possible.
Up to now, vehicle-specific designs and battery modules are generally used for this complex design. For the future requirements with regard to standardization, cost reduction, installation design, system security and long-term stability, new approaches for the construction of the battery packs are necessary, which lead to unification and modularization for the user. In order to ensure the necessary modularity, it is imperative to provide technologies that allow the individual cells to be assembled into modules and entire battery systems - depending on the customer and the intended use (hybrid, electric vehicle, etc.).